The robotics: from the mythology to the fleets of robot  
   The developments in civil and military circle
August 11 th 2003  
  
  
  
The robotics as the computer science, are intrusive. It runs over the greatest part of the human activities: the industry, the surgery, the defense, the diagnostic natural and artificial, the spatial activities, the game, the agriculture, the electronics….  
  
It realizes us, however, that in Italy, the diffusion of the knowledge of the applications robotiche is limited to little employees to the sector and the researchers and impassioned of the fascinating subject.  
  
  
  
For instance, from about 15 years the Fiat climbs on everywhere the motor FIRE  and, if you ask the meaning of FIRE, the big majority responds “fuoco”, translation in Italian of the term fire.  
  
Little they know that FIRE is the acronym of Full Integrated Robotized Engine. It is the result of a bright and useful search of the Fiat for the planning of a motor that could be treated and climbed on without any human intervention.  
  
The result of the search is the FIRE, whose characteristics principals are the number of its components equal to around 50% in less than an analogous traditional motor, easy to climb on and to maintain and, above all, assemblable completely from robot.  
  
An exceptional motor indeed that has demolished the costs of the assemblage through the human intervention.  
  
  
  
The recognition of the objects has allowed to employ robot that, they for instance choose the components of a mother plate of a computer, supplied to the robot fitter of the plate, from other robots, that are automatically supplied of chip and other parts electronics and they feed where the plan the select electronic components they are prepared helter-skelter, then, from the robot that it individualizes what serves and it automatically climbs on him/it on the plate of the computer.  
  
  
  
The man, guards the operations and intervenes only in case of necessity. It is a technology, this, applied on base industrialist at least from one decade  
  
Other known employment is where that in the surgical interventions the robot it is precious for the precision required from some interventions.  
  
There is then the robot for explosive of the police, the robot player of kick employee in international championships.  
  
The search has realized prototypes of micro-robot, that introduced, for instance, in the digestive apparatus, through swallowed capsules, they develop diagnosis reliable and bloodless to the bowel and to other digestive organs.  
  
  
  
In military circle, it is spoken of whole robotized fleets. Of certain USA are in advanced phase of R&D in such sector.  
  
The wars in Afganistan and in Iraq have brought the " Predator " to the footlight of the media; aerial UAVs (Unmanned Air Vehicles) (without pilot) tele-commanded with potentiality also from light bombardier ', over that for aerial recognition.  
  
  
  
A note Italian industry–in narrow connection with the industries USA, leader of the sector in the programs of realization and search enumerates besides the Predator, also others two categories of UAV: " Hawk " and " Kite ".  
  
controled to distance  
  
. The " Hawk " is an UAV of category MAE (Medium Altitude Endurance, Flight of Duration to Middle Height) with opening to haul of 7,20 ms, of which a naval version is foreseen. To the inside there is the payload (a kind of plant command) that he/she understands the thermal viewers, television cameras to colors and laser nominators.  
  
  
  
• the " Kite " has overcome the number of 100 exemplary products; in 2004 an experimental version will be produced modified in different configurations that will understand a date link, computer system of connection of data and sensors elettro-opticians.  
  
  
  
I am these a limited number of examples. The diffusion of the robots is of already very ample. We are alone to the beginning.  
  
  
  
Also in this sector you/they cannot be ignored the Greek that have brought a fundamental contribution to the problem of the life and the artificial intelligence The originality and the actuality of the Greek thought they don't stop being object of extreme wonder and admiration. It will be remembered that Efèsto the blacksmith of the gods, it was made to help–Iliade XVIII sings–from very beautiful young girl of gold that …with him also moved ancelles/scudis in the gold that they seemed alive girls,/because sense within the breasts in all contain, and strength and it speaks, /….  
  
Other automaton built by Efésto is Talo (Apollonio Rodio, Argonautiche 1639 seggs.). Talo is the giant of I hum Clay custodian that with fire and throwing of stones it faces the Argonautis that, at the end they will be right of it.  
  
All the civilizations have suffered the charm of the artificial life and the robots. Literature has left each other a magnificent testimony: Simbad the sailor, the Golem of the Maharal of Praga, Pinocchio, the Robot of Karel Capek.  
  
  
  
Aristotile, by the way of how much human anxiety to build an artificial life writes in the De Anima (IIB, 4, 415b): << …because the living one is not able to participate of the eternity and of the divine one in continuous way, because any corruptible being can remain the same and only numerically, therefore every participates in the way that is able of it, one more, the other less and not him but another you/he/she remains not as him for the number but for the kind… >>. The Greek have realized indeed automatons of which. I/you/they have reached only unfortunately us descriptive fragments. Archita in Taranto, pitagorico, lover of the youth, had realized a mechanical dove of wood–similar to the goose of 2000 anuses after Jacque de Vaucanson–to amuse his/her children.  
  
  
  
Only with the intellectual turn of Galileo, Cartesio, Newton, Leibnitz the scientific search bursts into flames knowledge and makes the enthusiasm also explode of writers as Giulio Verne and Isaac Asimov. Conclusive to the development of the robotics I am Turing that after having realized the car of Plugs in 1937 - in 1950 he/she was asked if the computers can think. He, will affirmatively respond then to his question. Other thinkers have given a genial contribution: Norbert Wiener and Johan Von Newman.  
  
  
  
And that the concept and the term of cybernetics it introduces entered to belong to the common language.  
  
Proper it is the cybernetics the discipline that studies the management and the transmission of the information of control in mechanical systems, voters, electronic and living. The cybernetics, Science of the thought, allows to apply to the investigation on the psychic trials the intellectual and methodological rigor of the exact sciences. The evolution of the electronics has allowed to realize robot whose work they were unthinkable only few years back.  
  
  
  
It needs, however, to be aware, that he is alone to the first footsteps, because few is still known of the brain and of his operation  
  
The Science will have to investigate on the secret of the thought, of the conscience, to discover the laws that govern them.  
  
For now, and it is already, so much, is possible to produce robot that only help the man in the executive activities and not decisional, not to speak of the world of the ideas. Of certain the robotica will be more and more of great help both to free the repetitive activity man and you work that don't require the appointment of the intellect, both to amplify its physical abilities and sensoriali.  
  
  
  
 In military circle, among not very, the appeal to the robotics, already diffused, it will become generalized. The aerial Droneses for the observation of the battleground have been being an operational reality for many years. In the next future, the systems C4Is Avanzati will check the fleet robotica that will have to replace too much the expensive fleets driven from human. Billion have been appropriated for the construction of the first prototype of aircraft carrier robot, that in turn can welcome squadrons of aerial robotizaded without pilot. The intent declared by the Pentagon is to create a net of ships robot put in warm points of the world, in international waters and able to strike where the affairs USA are in danger and without requiring help to some and to undergo to mediations with the allies.